Ransomware is often spread through phishing emails that contain malicious attachments or through drive-by downloading. Drive-by downloading occurs when a user unknowingly visits an infected website and then malware is downloaded and installed without the user's knowledge.


The hijackers held the Plainfield files ransom, demanding roughly 650 euros paid in bitcoin. Mapp sought the assistance from law enforcement, but remains helpless in regaining access.


Plainfield was a victim of ransomware, a type of malware that cybersecurity experts and law enforcement officials say is spreading nationwide. "Everyone should be concerned. It's the number one problem facing the computer security industry and it's very, very difficult to solve," said Ryan Naraine, director at cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Lab. Naraine said the malware gets into people's computers, often with a simple click.


"They prey on people's willingness to click on the latest viral videos, they prey on people's willingness to click on Facebook links, they are even sending spam in addition to emails through Twitter," Naraine said.


Once a computer is infected, it encrypts all files or locks the user out until they pay for the key. Naraine demonstrated how it works. "I have a music file and like many people, I have photos, often family photos," Naraine said. "The ransomware is communicating with a server. The server is sending instructions here to start encrypting all these files."


In just minutes, the ransomware takes hold and the computer is compromised. "The machine is now ransomed -- this machine is now part of the ransomware attack," Naraine said. "If I try to look at all my photos from my last family vacation, you try to open, it's nothing. It's garbage. Imagine an average business -- not only on this computer but encrypting every computer within this a network at the same time."


In addition to a string of hospitals hacked, the village of Ilion, New York paid hundreds of dollars in ransom in 2014 and the police department in Melrose, Massachusetts paid nearly $500 to get back online.


"We are seeing an uptick in this type of activity," said Ari Mahairis, who heads the FBI's New York cyber division. "One of the reasons that our numbers are growing is because of the idea that people are paying the ransoms."


In 2014, the FBI received over 1,800 complaints about ransomware, an estimated loss of more than $23 million. In 2015, the bureau received over 2,400 complaints, and victims lost over $24 million. "These are just the cases that are being reported. We suspect there are many more out there that haven't," Mahairis said.


The ransom demands are often relatively small -- hundreds to a few thousand dollars -- but the loss to an individual or business can be huge. "It's a very, very helpless feeling to open your computer and you don't have your computer anymore," Naraine said.


"Naraine urges users to 'back up' information for protection. Good user habits, common sense, backups and patching. With those basic things in place, I think you can minimize your exposure," Naraine said.

Ransomware is often spread through phishing emails that contain malicious attachments or through drive-by downloading. Drive-by downloading occurs when a user unknowingly visits an infected website and then malware is downloaded and installed without the user's knowledge.

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